The managerial perspective
The pluralist perspective
The argumentative perspective
Laird, F. N. (1993). Participatory Analysis, Democracy, and Technological Decision Making. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 18(3), 341-361.
Decisions can be made by individuals or group people. For collective decisions, some criterion below:
In some sense all decisions are individual decisions since the individual mustdecide what position she or he will take in the process of group decision making(集体的decision也是个人decision得来的） — political actions are environmentally consequential (Stern et al. 1999)…..What then are the criteria for a “good” collective decision?:
1.Human and Environmental Well-Being;2.Competence about Facts and Value;3Fairness in Process and Outcome; 4.Relying on Human Strengths, Not Weaknesses 5. A Chance to Learn…
Stern, P.C, T. Dietz, T. Abel, G.A. Guagnano and L. Kalof (1999). A social psychological theory of support for social movements: The case of environmentalism. Human Ecology Review 6, 81-97
Dietz, T. (2003). What is a good decision? Criteria for environmental decision making. Human Ecology Review, 10(1), 33-39.
Criteria for ” better ” environmental decision making
Whether better decisions are reached through participation really depends on the ability of the participants to be open-minded, treating alternative arguments simply as alternative points of view (Caspian Richards, Scottish Environment Protection Agency)