PURPOSE Of Public Participation不同目的面临不同的问题
environmental risk assessment——–scientific rationality Vs. cultural rationality…(subjective~objective)
(Plough and Krimsky,1987)maintain/note/succinctly point out/illuminate that
“there is a social context of experts and officialdom as well as lay public communities. Bias, irrational action, narrow interest group behavior intrude into both these contexts.”
This leads Plough and Krimsky (1987) to argue that the view (of risk experts) that the public are incapable of digesting complex technical findings – and are therefore left to fall back on irrational judgements – misses the point. In an uncertain world, the premises upon which rational arguments are constructed vary. It is not that some arguments are rational and others irrational, but that our belief systems rest on different and often competing rationalities.
· technical rationality – the mindset that puts its faith in empirical evidence and scientific method
· cultural rationality – emphasises the opinions of traditional and peer groups over those of the experts. It focuses on personal experience rather than depersonalised calculations
A more sophisticated categorisation has been developed by, amongst others, the anthropologist Mary Douglas (for a summary of which, see Adams 1995: especially chapter 3). In this view, a functional interdependence exists between people’s view of the world and their adherence to a particular set of social relations. Five types of social relations are identified – namely hierarchical, individualist, egalitarian, fatalist and autonomous. The first four of these, it is suggested, have corresponding views of nature – namely nature as perverse or tolerant, benign, fragile and capricious respectively. Thus it is often possible to discern people’s ‘worldview’ and how this affects their risk perception.
Source: http://www.greenwich.ac.uk/~bj61/talessi/tlr46a.htmlhttp://www.deepdyve.com/lp/sage/science-technology-and-risk-coverage-of-a-community-conflict-njkp662NwO http://www.soc.iastate.edu/sapp/Bradbury.pdf
Plough, A. and Krimsky, S. (1987) The emergence of risk communication studies: social and political context, Science, Technology and Human Values, 12 (3-4), 4-10